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Determination of titanium dioxide in commercial sunscreens by inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry

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dc.contributor.author Martincigh, Bice S.
dc.contributor.author Kindness, Andrew
dc.contributor.author Bunhu, Tavengwa
dc.date.accessioned 2017-03-03T12:55:47Z
dc.date.available 2017-03-03T12:55:47Z
dc.date.copyright 2011
dc.date.created 2017-03-03
dc.date.issued 2011
dc.identifier.citation Bunhu T et al. 2011, ‘Determination of titanium dioxide in commercial sunscreens by inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry’, South. African Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 64, pp. 139–143. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10907/1175
dc.description.abstract Avariety of sunscreen products have been developed to afford the consumer protection against some of the deleterious effects, for example erythema, caused by solar ultraviolet radiation. The requirement that suncare products offer broad-spectrumprotection has resulted in the use of inorganic oxides, such as micronized titanium dioxide (TiO2), in their formulation. However, there are now concerns about the photocatalytic effects of the TiO2 in these products and its potential phototoxicity to the skin through the generation of reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals. It is important, therefore, that the amounts of TiO2 in suncare products be closely monitored and maintained within stipulated ranges. A simple, fast and reliable analytical method for the determination of TiO2 in commercial sunscreen products by inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was developed and validated. The limits of detection and quantitation were found to be 0.018 and 0.062 μg mL–1, respectively. The average percentage recovery of TiO2 was 102.32 ± 2.87 % with a RSD of 2.81 %. The method was applied to determine the concentration of TiO2 in 22 commercial suncare samples of which 14 contained TiO2. The amounts of TiO2 measured in these sunscreens ranged from 0.05 to 3.21 %. To our knowledge this is the first study that reports the amounts of TiO2 in sunscreen products available on the South African market. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship National Research Foundation of South Africa (NRF) en_US
dc.format.extent 5 p. en_US
dc.format.medium PDF en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.relation.requires Adobe Acrobat Reader en_US
dc.subject Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry en_US
dc.subject Physical blocker en_US
dc.subject Sunscreens en_US
dc.subject Titanium dioxide en_US
dc.title Determination of titanium dioxide in commercial sunscreens by inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.rights.holder National Research Foundation en_US


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