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Exploring acyl azides chemistry in continuous flow systems

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dc.contributor.advisor Watts, Paul Sagandir, Cloudius Ray 2017-10-12T10:46:59Z 2017-10-12T10:46:59Z 2017 2017 2017 2017-04-08
dc.description.abstract Organic azides are important in the synthesis of many target molecules of great use in fine chemical and pharmaceutical production. The use of this class of compounds is however limited due to their hazardous nature and many safety concerns, as they are highly exothermic. Micro reactors can handle exotherms extremely well, due to the inherent high surface area to volume ratio, unlike the conventional batch process. This dissertation therefore aims to investigate the safe application of micro reactors in acyl azide chemistry.With this in mind, Chapter 1 provides a comprehensive background on organic azides, reaction calorimetric studies, flow chemistry technology (micro reactors) and their theoretical advantages. This chapter also discusses the preparation of organic azides in continuous flow systems and scaling up in continuous flow systems. Chapter 2 illustrates and discusses multivariate optimisation of benzoyl azide synthesis as a model reaction, synthesis of other acyl azides using the model reaction optimised conditions and multistep synthesis of carbamates, amides and amines in continuous flow systems via the Curtius rearrangement of benzoyl azide formed in situ from benzoyl chloride and sodium azide. The chapter also discusses process hazards analysis and evaluation of benzoyl azide synthesis and decomposition using calorimetric studies. It also investigates and discusses the effects of different mixing regimes and channel sizes on scale up. Chapter 3 has comprehensive experimental details for the whole dissertation with Chapter 4 providing the concluding remarks and future work recommendations. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship National Research Foundation en_US
dc.format.extent 224 p. en_US
dc.format.medium pdf en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University en_US
dc.relation.requires Adobe Acrobat Reader en_US
dc.relation.uri en_US
dc.rights Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University en_US
dc.subject Organic compounds - synthesis en_US
dc.subject Flow chemistry en_US
dc.title Exploring acyl azides chemistry in continuous flow systems en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.rights.holder Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University en_US
dc.contributor.orcid 0000-0002-6485-3606 en_US

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