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The effect of terpenoids on the expression and function of cytokines and adipokines in pre-adipocytes and differentiated adipocytes

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dc.contributor.advisor Frost, Carminita
dc.contributor.advisor Levendal, Ruby-Ann
dc.contributor.author Bloom, Carri-Ann
dc.date.accessioned 2017-10-12T10:48:11Z
dc.date.available 2017-10-12T10:48:11Z
dc.date.copyright 2017
dc.date.created 2017-10
dc.date.issued 2017
dc.date.submitted 2017-04-08
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10907/1511
dc.description.abstract Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterised by inflammation, insulin resistance and the inability of pancreatic β-cells to secrete enough insulin to produce a physiological effect. Obesity and high levels of triacylglycerol’s are associated with the development of Type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that secretes various protein and peptide hormones, known as adipokines, which mediate important metabolic functions. In an insulin resistant and hyperglycaemic state, levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines, adiponectin, are reduced, whereas levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β, are elevated; this results in a shift from an anti- to a pro-inflammatory state that is accompanied by dysfunction and apoptosis of the pancreatic β-cells. Cannabis sativa L. has been traditionally used as an anti-inflammatory agent in Southern Africa, specifically treating snakebites, fever and malaria. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol is the main psychoactive compound derived from C. sativa, whereas the other major cannabinoids, cannabinol and cannabidiol, have shown anti-inflammatory and sedative properties respectively. Marrubiin is a compound derived from the plant Leonotis leonurus L. and has been traditionally used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic agent. To determine the effects of these compounds in a hyperglycaemic state, pre- and differentiated mouse adipocytes (3T3-L1 cells) were exposed for seven and fourteen days to the following treatments: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabinol, marrubiin, anandamide (an endogenous endocannabinoid) and cannabis extract, individually and in combination, under normal glucose and hyperglycaemic conditions. Levels of adiponectin, interleukin-6, leptin, tumour-necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were quantified using mouse enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits and Oil Red O staining was carried out to determine lipid distribution and lipid droplet characteristics. Results indicate that various cannabinoids, in combination, mediate an anti-inflammatory effect by decreasing the expression of various pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may have allowed for a shift from a pro- to an anti-inflammatory state by these compounds, and may also contribute to the reduction of lipid, which may be used as a supplementary option to current diabetic treatment regimes. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship National Research Foundation en_US
dc.format.extent 219 p. en_US
dc.format.medium pdf en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University en_US
dc.relation.requires Adobe Acrobat Reader en_US
dc.relation.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10948/9208 en_US
dc.rights Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University en_US
dc.subject Terpenes en_US
dc.subject Cytokines en_US
dc.subject Fat cells en_US
dc.title The effect of terpenoids on the expression and function of cytokines and adipokines in pre-adipocytes and differentiated adipocytes en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.rights.holder Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University en_US
dc.contributor.orcid 0000-0001-6543-7834 en_US


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