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Extremely high proportions of male flowers and geographic variation in floral ratios within male figs of Ficus tikoua despite pollinators displaying active pollen collection.

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dc.contributor.author Deng, JY
dc.contributor.author Fu, RH
dc.contributor.author Compton, SG
dc.contributor.author Hu, DM
dc.contributor.author Zhang, LS
dc.contributor.author Yang, F
dc.contributor.author Chen, Y
dc.contributor.author Kjellberg, F
dc.date.accessioned 2018-07-09T10:14:00Z
dc.date.available 2018-07-09T10:14:00Z
dc.date.copyright 2016-01-09
dc.date.issued 2016-01-09
dc.identifier.citation Deng, JY, Fu, RH, Compton, SG, Hu, DM, Zhang, LS, Yang, F et al. 2016, ‘Extremely high proportions of male flowers and geographic variation in floral ratios within male figs of Ficus tikoua despite pollinators displaying active pollen collection’, Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 607-619, Viewed 4 July 2018, Wiley Open Access, Doi: 10.1002/ece3.1926 en_US
dc.identifier.issn 2045-7758
dc.identifier.uri https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ece3.1926
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10907/2339
dc.description.abstract Most plants are pollinated passively, but active pollination has evolved among insects that depend on ovule fertilization for larval development. Anther-to-ovule ratios (A/O ratios, a coarse indicator of pollen-to-ovule ratios) are strong indicators of pollination mode in fig trees and are consistent within most species. However, unusually high values and high variation of A/O ratios (0.096-10.0) were detected among male plants from 41 natural populations of Ficus tikoua in China. Higher proportions of male (staminate) flowers were associated with a change in their distribution within the figs, from circum-ostiolar to scattered. Plants bearing figs with ostiolar or scattered male flowers were geographically separated, with scattered male flowers found mainly on the Yungui Plateau in the southwest of our sample area. The A/O ratios of most F. tikoua figs were indicative of passive pollination, but its Ceratosolen fig wasp pollinator actively loads pollen into its pollen pockets. Additional pollen was also carried on their body surface and pollinators emerging from scattered-flower figs had more surface pollen. Large amounts of pollen grains on the insects' body surface are usually indicative of a passive pollinator. This is the first recorded case of an actively pollinated Ficus species producing large amounts of pollen. Overall high A/O ratios, particularly in some populations, in combination with actively pollinating pollinators, may reflect a response by the plant to insufficient quantities of pollen transported in the wasps' pollen pockets, together with geographic variation in this pollen limitation. This suggests an unstable scenario that could lead to eventual loss of wasp active pollination behavior. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship National Research Foundation (South Africa) en_US
dc.format.extent Tables: iv, fig.: iv, 13 P. en_US
dc.format.medium PDF en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Wiley Open Access en_US
dc.rights Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States *
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/us/ *
dc.subject Active pollination; en_US
dc.subject Ceratosolen en_US
dc.subject P/O ratio en_US
dc.subject Anther‐to‐ovule ratios en_US
dc.subject Fig wasp en_US
dc.subject Inflorescence design en_US
dc.subject Pollen limitation en_US
dc.title Extremely high proportions of male flowers and geographic variation in floral ratios within male figs of Ficus tikoua despite pollinators displaying active pollen collection. en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.rights.holder Wiley Open Access en_US


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